- History of Roudnice n.Labem
Outsets of the first settlement of Roudnice( 195 metres above the sea level, 13 800 inhabitants ) are presupossed in the prehistory by archaelogists. At the beginning of the 10th century there was a market settlement Radnice or Rudenice and a gatekeepers stop-log near a river ford of an important business way which leaded from Horní Lužnice into the centre of Czech lands.The colonial name was deduced from a spring of a mineral red water which flows near a church up to this day. The first estate was situated on the left side of the river Labe below west and east point. Roudnice passed through many historical important events such another towns, after the stagnation followed. A period of a glory is short but it is a clue for a historical axis, critical years are a warning reminder.
First written reports about Roudnice originated from later period ( 1167-1176).When archdeacons are mentioned as witnesses of a property transfer.Roudnice became goods of Prague bishops ( later archbishops ) and a place of their building interest and often stays.They built a stone castle in the east point in the break of the 12th and 13th century.It was the second world construction after Prague castle in the Czech lands.
A real development of a town started in the 14th century during the regin of Prahue bishop Jan IV.from Dražice. He built Saint Wenceslaw church near the Labe ford. After a return of Jan from Dražice from a popish yard, around 1333, he laid foundations for building of a cloister with Virgin Mary church,a hospital near Saint Wenceslaw church below a castle and he started to build a stone bridge across the river Labe. This bridge belonged to the biggest gothic czech bridges and it contributed to a business and traffic importance of a town.At this time Petrarca, an Italian poet, was a guest of a town.In 1378 archbishop Jan Očko from Vlašim founded a New town in Roudnice. Then an emperor and king, Charles IV, visited the castle. A failure of the town started during Hussite movement.Troop of Jan Žižka demolished the cloister and burned out the town en route to Litoměřice.After 1430 the town was in the hands of temporal feudalists. A positive result did not bring an endeavour of a burgrave and magistrate of the town who wanted to extend a judicial and civilian autorities after the death of Jan Smiřický(1453).
The second important period is dated by arriving of Lobkowicz. Before that in 1587 Vilém from Rožmberk married Polyxena from Pernštejn. Vilém gained the town in 1577 and he took it as an important place of his domain of Rožmberks. Ponds and famous vineyards were founded. He extoled it according to the latest economic methods which worked in a specialist Jakub Krčín from Jelčany, repairs were done.During a rule of Zdeněk Vojtěch from Lobkowicz, a sovereign czech chancellor, ( in 1603 he married Polyxena ) works were more hard. In 1628 a cloister and church were finished, a cloister and Saint Wenceslaw church were repaired. Václav Eusebius from Lobkowicz concluded years of a prosperity. He let to build an early baroque castle complex with a participation of four architects, Pietro Colomb, Francesco Caratti, Carl Orsolini and Antonius Potry, in place of a castle district in years 1652 - 1684. There you can find a very quality picture gallery, a library, music. A folly, a riding hall, a brewery were built. Fruit and ornamental gardens were founded. There was the plan for building a bridge because a gothic bridge was destroyed during a war which lasted 30 years.At the end of this war there were only 22 habitable houses in the town.At the end of the 17th century the first workmanlike workshops came up ( dye-houses, spinning factories ). In the largest workshop there worked 320 spinners with hand spinning wheels. Presently a large Germanize started.Citizens grew rich in an economic prosperity so at the end of Baroque there were well-built Reneissance houses at the upper square with a Reneissance town hall. In this period Saint Virgin Mary church was repaired after a fire destroyed it. Saint Vilém chapel was built in 1726, Saint Rosaly chapel was built in 1718-1726, a hospital chaple of saint Josef was built in 1767-1777 and a bell tower in 1715 which is situated above a warning tower from the 15thcentury. A dynamic industrial development took out different victims in the 19th century. During a building of a railway Saint Wenceslae church( Panny Marie Loretánské ) was demolished in 1847-1850, town walls and entering gates were demolished during a dissemination of a town.Revolutionary events in 1848 found a reception in this region.A demonstration was the biggest one at the hill Říp, there were 20thousands.
May 10,1945 Roudnice was freedom, Red Army came into the town. This meant a new period in history. In 1950 a cultural tradition of Lobkowitz house finished and in 1960 Roudnice lost its administrative meaning. A district people´s committee was canceled. At this time a large housing estate was built, a new hospital and many sports areas.
Roudnice nad Labem is the town which has had an important meaning in a history of our state and this will go on the next century.Roudnice nad Labem est une ville qui tenait toujours une place importante à l’histoire de l’état, donc elle la tiendra peut-être au 21.siècle.
Hill called Říp
A single and dominant basalt pile (456metres above sea-level ) has a characteristic bell-shaped form according to this shape you can see it from far in this straight Říp landscape. A monumental hill has its own place in the czech mythology. A chronicler Kosmas wrote about arriving of patriarch Čech before year 1125, in 1894 Alois Jirásek ( a known czech writer ) wrote about it in his book called ´Staré pověsti české´. There is a time honoured rotunda of Saint George in the top with a tower, it was re-consecration in 1126 in memory of a victory of Prince Soběslav I.over a germany king Lothar III. Říp is a known pilgrimage place. The first climb was Sokol trip led by M.Tyrš, 27.4.1862. A big celebration was in 1868 when there was lifted one of basic stones of the National Theatre. An interesting fact is a high content of an iron in a basalt which caused fluctuating of a compass. Slopes rested glabrous for several centuries and were afforested in the 19th century. For that in these days only a view in Mělník, Prague and Roudnice offer a sight.